Question: Is there a way to tell if ChkDsk is being run at regular intervals and see what the results are?
Answer: Yes! There is an event written to the Application Event Log when chkdsk is run. To view it, run eventvwr.msc. In the left-side navigation pane expand "Windows Logs". Then select the Application Log.
Note: If clicking through thousands of events one-at-a-time isn't your idea of "fun", there are a couple of handy event log search features. Since you know the event IDs in this case, you can filter the output using the "Filter" options in the right-side action pane. Alternately you can right-click "Application" in the navigation pane, select "Find", and search for "chkdsk" (no quotes).
If chkdsk is run in offline mode at boot time, either for a dirty filesystem or because it's forced, then the output will be in the Application Log WinInit event id 1001.
|Wininit Event Id 1001 Offline Chkdsk output|
|Chkdsk Event Id 26212 Online Chkdsk output|
When I tested my Windows 8.1 machine, I got the same event for the offline scan, but the online scan gave me chkdsk Event ID 26226.
|Windows 8.1 Chkdsk online scan EventID 26226|
Bonus tip, to schedule an Offline Chkdsk scan for your next reboot, run fsutil dirty set c:.